Thursday, 21 December 2017

Notational Profile during Action Time Between Winning and Losing Vietnam Team in Silat Olahraga 28th Sea Games 2015 Singapore


J An Pawista

Faculty of Sports Science & Recreation, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia

Key words: kicking, martial arts, performance analysis

ABSTRACT

Silat is a popular Asian martial art (Shapie, 2014). The aim of this study is to compare the skills that have been selected between winner and losers in Vietnam team of Silat Olaharaga. A publicly available video recording of 4 videos Silat Olahraga matches from Sea Games 2015 in Singapore was chosen for the analysis, which is Women’s Class C Final, Men’s Class A Final, Men’s Class C Quarter Final and Men’s Class B Quarter Final. Motion categories Silat exponent’s motions were coded into 14 different types of categories. For example, block, punch, kick, sweep, topple and many more. The notational analysis was used to record all the selected outcomes in this study such as hit target, hit elsewhere and miss opponent.

INTRODUCTION

Pencak Silat is a unique form of martial arts rooted in Malay culture, which stretches across Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei Darussalam, the Southern Philippines and Southern Thailand, and other places where populations who converse in the Malay language and refer to a common Malay ancestry found. The combination of the words Pencak and Silat into a compound word was made for the first time when an organization of the unity of Pencak schools and Silat schools in Indonesia was founded in Surakarta in 1948, which called Ikatan Pencak Silat Indonesia (The Indonesian Pencak Silat Association), abbreviated as IPSI (Kartomi, 2011).  
          The uniqueness of Silat Olahraga is the rule. In the rule, there are exist of basic commands, time for each match, target area to attack the opponent, and the scoring point for each of the area that attacked. For the basic commands, the ‘wasit’ which is referee will issue the command 'Sedia', meaning 'ready'. Then, he will shout 'Mulai', meaning 'begin'. Immediately the 'gong' will be struck. When the wasit wants to stop the fight, he will shout 'Berhenti', meaning 'stop'. Every time the fighters step out of the ring, the wasit will stop the fight and bring the fighters back to the center. If a fighter repeatedly steps outside the ring, especially if stepping backwards, the wasit may issue a penalty point. If pesilat continues to do that he may be given 2 penalty points. If pesilat still continues to step out of the ring, the wasit may even decide to end the fight and proclaim pesilat opponent the winner. There are three rounds of fighting, 2 minutes for every round, with 1 minute rest between each round.
    Silat can strengthen self-awareness, self-discipline, integrity, responsibility, loyalty, and cooperation among its practitioners (Latiff, 2012). Referring by Wilson, (2009) Pencak Silat as ‘situated activities’ in their own right, attempting to ‘analyze activity in situ’ and treat ‘relations among person, activity, and situation, as they are given in a social practice, itself viewed as a single, encompassing, theoretical entity’. Latiff, (2012) also stated that Silat is no mere skill, but focused instead on moulding individual human qualities. Traditionally, training in Pencak Silat takes place through apprenticeship to a teacher, or guru, and instruction in the art is often inalienable from the genealogical relationships that link it to person and place (Wilson, 2009).  
According by Shapie et al., (2009) silat exponent’s motions were coded into 14 different types of categories, such as punch, kick, block, catch, topple, sweep, evade/dodge, self-release, block and punch, block and kick, block and sweep, fake punch, fake kick and others. Nevertheless, in this performance analysis, there will be have four major indicator including punch, kick, topple and sweep. Usually, for the fighting or sparing, the players will be categorized according to their weight.


MATERIALS AND METHOD

The data has been based on the video match of Vietnam team in 28th Sea Games Singapore 2015. The video was collected by using the Youtube channel and the data was collected by using annotated analysis style. The video of silat was play and pause in sequence in order to collect data accurately. The video has been play by using NacSport Elite software. The winning and losing participant will be classified and the game-related statistics were collected. Data that been collected was exported to Microsoft excel 2015 and later will been analyse by using SPSS20. 

MOTION CATEGORIES

According to Shapie, Nizam, Oliver, O'donoghue, and Tong (2013) Silat exponent’s motions were coded into 14 different types of categories and were defined as follows:
Punch:
The punch ‘tumbuk’ is form of attacking is done by a closed fist of the hand hitting toward the target. In Silat, punching skills are actions that shoot the opponent either front punch or side punch towards the opponent’s bodies to win spots in the fight.

Kick:
The kicking skills are an attacking movement which is executed with one leg or two legs at the same time. In Silat Tanding battle, a kick can be trained at any mark of the opponent’s torso. It can be front kick, side flush, back kick or semi-circular side.

Block:
Restricting movement begins with posture position ‘sikap pasang’: exponential standing straight with her hands whole body or close to his chest. Blocking or parrying ‘tangkisan’ can be done by using arms, elbows and leg with aim to prevent or withdraw at any attack.

Catch:
The catch ‘tangkapan’ carried by hand to prevent opponent from carrying out attacks. Silat exponent can prevent itself from attack he pointed to the attack have been arrested for the other direction. Capture the disorder or drags the opponent is prohibited. A catch that can solve part held such as leg and waist are prohibited. These rules exist to protect the silat exponent.

Topple:
There are ways to bring down an opponent down. For example, a silat exponent of ‘pesilat’ can be either push, push opponents back away from the bag or from the side, push, punch, kick, strike or punched to make your opponent off balance. Every fall is not valid as long as silat exponent topples his opponent down without wrestling or she is able to defeat an opponent that he had been brought down.

Sweep:
Swiping ‘sapuan’ involves attacking the opponent's feet on the ground to unstabilise him and brought down to the ground. An exponent of silat can do this movement attacking either his right or left leg. Thus, the front sweep ‘sapuan depan’ done by swinging the leg forward to push opposite front leg, while a swipe back ‘sapuan belakang’ carried out by swinging the leg backwards to hit the back leg.

Evade/Dodge:
The dodge ‘elakan’ silat techniques carried out by the athlete when he tried to prevent the attack. This technique does not require touching the silat exponents in fending off opponents off the attack. They are many ways to carry out his defensive movements such as dodging
‘gelek’  retreat ‘mundur’, evasion to the side ‘elak sisi’, bending ‘elak serung’. Jumping ‘lonjak’, ducking ‘susup’ and others.

Self-Release:
Self-release ‘lepas tangkapan’ technique is a technique to open any clinching or arrests of opponents.

Block and Punch:
Blocking techniques used to prevent any attack from the opponent's hands or leg and followed with a counter-attack by hand to punch the opponent.


Block and Kick:
Blocking techniques used to prevent any attack from the opponent's hands or leg and followed with a counter-attack using the foot to kick the opponent.

Block and Sweep:
Blocking techniques used to prevent any attack from the opponent's hands or leg, followed by a sweeping counter-attack technique to the opponent.

Fake Punch:
An action that a silat exponent intends to confuse opponents using fake punch to break his opponent's defense posture.

Fake Kick:
An action that a silat exponent intends to confuse opponents using fake kick to break his opponent's defense posture.

Others:
Both silat opponents are either standing posture ‘sikap pasang’ or come close to each other using a pattern martial step ‘pola langkah’. All activities are considered high intensity except others were at that time the both silat opponents are in the low intensity periods.


RELIABILITY OF OBSERVATION

The author analysed all the activities and simultaneously classified each change of motion in a single match. Each transition of the actions was observed by the analyst. The observations of the match were done by one and half hours. In order to examine the data from the game, an experienced silat professional is needed because the game is quick and need to be more focus for each accomplishment.


STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

The observation generated data will be frequency counted. All the data collected from each round of match. In this analysis, the Statistical Package Social Science (SPSS) version 20 is being used.  A descriptive analysis which is mean and standard deviation are being outputted to determine the difference performance between winner and loser in each of silat matches. A chi square test of independence was used to determine if there was a similar profile of actions performed by the red and blue contestant in the match. An alpha level of (p<0.05) was taken to show statistical significant.

RESULTS

The result has been showed in the table below which is the four table for each match actions and continue with table of difference between winning and losing in that match.  There have three outcomes based on the observation from the video matches, which are hit target, hit elsewhere and miss opponent.

Table 1: Frequency of actions and outcomes recorded by Women’s Class C 60kg Final
·         Vietnam (Win) and Indonesia (Lose)

Action
Hit Target
Hit Elsewhere
Miss Opponent
Not
Available
Total
Win
Lose
Win
Lose
Win
Lose
Win
Lose
Block
2
1






3
Block and Kick









Block and Punch









Block and Sweep









Kick
1

13
20
2
10


46
Fake Kick






3
1
4
Punch









Fake Punch









Self-Release
2







2
Topple
3

4

1



8
Sweep

1
3
1
2
1


8
Catch
10




1


11
Evade/Dodge


8
3


9
3
23
Others






22
22
44
Total
18
2
28
24
5
12
34
26
149
*Note: Others – means low intensity activities.

Table 2: Frequency Profile of the 2 contestants
Exponent
Kick
Sweep
Other*
Total
Winner
16
5
64
85
Loser
30
3
31
64
Total
46
8
95
149
            *Note: ‘Other’ here refers to other activities than kick and sweep

Table 3: Statistic Analysis for Match 1 (Women’s Class C 60kg Final) Vietnam vs Indonesia
Exponent
N
Mean (SD)
Inter Class Correlation
Winner
4
23.00 (12.69)
0.919
Loser
4
18.00 (11.20)
0.919
  

Table 4: Frequency of actions and outcomes recorded by Men’s Class A 50kg Final
·         Vietnam (Win) and Indonesia (Lose)

Action
Hit Target
Hit Elsewhere
Miss Opponent
Not
Available
Total
Win
Lose
Win
Lose
Win
Lose
Win
Lose
Block
3
1






4
Block and Kick









Block and Punch









Block and Sweep









Kick
1

10
8
2
4


25
Fake Kick









Punch
1

1





2
Fake Punch






1

1
Self-Release

1






1
Topple
3
6
2
2




13
Sweep
3

5
2




10
Catch
4
2






6
Evade/Dodge







2
2
Others






29
29
58
Total
15
10
18
12
2
4
30
31
122
*Note: Others – means low intensity activities.

Table 5: Frequency Profile of the 2 contestants
Exponent
Kick
Sweep
Other*
Total
Winner
13
8
44
65
Loser
12
2
43
57
Total
25
10
87
122
            *Note: ‘Other’ here refers to other activities than kick and sweep

 Table 6: Statistic Analysis for Match 2 (Men’s Class A 50kg Final) Vietnam vs Indonesia
Exponent
N
Mean (SD)
Inter Class Correlation
Winner
4
16.50 (11.50)
0.939
Loser
4
11.00 (11.67)
0.939


Table 7: Frequency of actions and outcomes recorded by Men’s Class C 60kg Semi Final
·         Vietnam (Win) and Laos (Lose)

Action
Hit Target
Hit Elsewhere
Miss Opponent
Not
Available
Total

Win
Lose
Win
Lose
Win
Lose
Win
Lose
Block
2
2






4
Block and Kick
1

1
2




4
Block and Punch









Block and Sweep
1







1
Kick


8
7
4
8


27
Fake Kick






2
2
4
Punch


2
4




6
Fake Punch









Self-Release







1
1
Topple
5
2
1
1




9
Sweep
3

1
1
1



6
Catch
5
2






7
Evade/Dodge






4
3
7
Others






22
22
44
Total
17
6
13
15
5
8
28
28
           120
*Note: Others – means low intensity activities.

Table 8: Frequency Profile of the 2 contestants
Exponent
Kick
Sweep
Other*
Total
Winner
12
5
46
63
Loser
15
1
41
57
Total
27
6
87
120
            *Note: ‘Other’ here refers to other activities than kick and punch

Table 9: Statistic Analysis for Match 3 (Men’s Class C 60kg Semi-final) Vietnam vs Laos
Exponent
N
Mean (SD)
Inter Class Correlation
Winner
4
15.00 (9.57)
0.820
Loser
4
11.50 (9.95)
0.820



Table 10: Frequency of actions and outcomes recorded by Men’s Class C 60kg Quarter Final
·         Vietnam (Win) and Singapore (Lose)

Action
Hit Target
Hit Elsewhere
Miss Opponent
Not
Available
Total

Win
Lose
Win
Lose
Win
Lose
Win
Lose
Block
1







1
Block and Kick


1





1
Block and Punch









Block and Sweep









Kick
1

8
15
2
4


30
Fake Kick






1
1
2
Punch


1
6

2


9
Fake Punch









Self-Release







2
2
Topple
1

3
2

1


7
Sweep
3

2

1
1


7
Catch
2
4






6
Evade/Dodge






2

2
Others






20
20
40
Total
8
4
15
23
3
8
23
23
107
*Note: Others – means low intensity activities.

Table 11: Frequency Profile of the 2 contestants
Exponent
Kick
Sweep
Other*
Total
Winner
11
6
32
49
Loser
19
1
38
58
Total
30
7
70
107
            *Note: ‘Other’ here refers to other activities than kick and punch

Table 12: Statistic Analysis for Match 4 (Men’s Class C 60kg Quarter-final) Vietnam vs  Singapore
Exponent
N
Mean (SD)
Inter Class Correlation
Winner
4
11.50 (8.69)
0.850
Loser
4
15.50 (9.95)
0.850


DISCUSSION

Based on the result, Vietnam has won all matches and make more action compare to the loser on total action profile.  From the result also, we can conclude that the winning athlete had in top performance which is in attack and during defending. The tactical used by Vietnamese silat’s athlete is more on kicking and sweep because they are focusing on getting point even some of round in the match they lose seldom of points. Moreover Vietnam’s athlete are using wait and attack strategy as we can see hit target percentage is higher than the miss opponent. Winning athlete was very focus and they have a good reaction. In term of sweep technique, their maximal strength and power is very high because they can make the opponent down or successful sweep. There also have well in strategies plan before do some actions to opponent.  
         From the first match result Women Class C 60kg between Vietnam and Indonesia in final match, Vietnam used more topple technique than Indonesia. That is the one reason why Vietnam got more point. In term of kicking technique, Vietnam almost trying to do hit target kick but not really successful. It is same like Indonesia team, which is the athlete try to get point from kicking but not hit target.
            For second match result which is Men Class A 50 kg between Vietnam and Indonesia in final match, from the early match which is the first round, both exponent performing low activity actions such as ‘sikap pasang’ or coming close each other using silat step pattern. Both exponents very slow to make some movement towards each other. As we can see from the video match, Vietnam playing aggressive in second and third round. Vietnam do more attacking than the Indonesia in last round. As we can see on the result, Indonesia’s athlete do very well in topple technique which is 6 hit target than Vietnam 3 hit target. However, the Indonesia’s athlete have lose focus on the last because of tiredness and many attacking from Vietnam’s athlete.  The sweep technique make the Vietnam team become winner because the athlete have been successful 3 hit target on that action for last round.
            The third match result which is Men Class C 60 kg between Vietnam and Laos in semi-final match. From my observation, the Vietnam team are very good in sweep and topple technique because as we can see on table 3, total action hit target of topple was 5 and sweep 3. Even though the opponent gives an attacking but the Vietnam also good in defensive. So because of that, the opponent has low opportunities to score point for some action such as kicking.   
          The fourth match result which is Men Class C 60 kg between Vietnam and Singapore in quarter-final match. Both of the exponent performing low activity actions such as ‘sikap pasang’ or coming close each other using silat step pattern on the early match but it become more aggressive in round two and three. Besides, what makes Vietnam win this match, he sweep hit target 3 times, kick hit target 1 time and topple hit target 1 time towards to opponent. There is a different between winner and loser because the opponent lose for 3 round of match.
   According to Aziz et al. (2002) reported that compared with judo and taekwondo, silat athletes have better leg power and is capable of performing in a short period with high intensity. To taking down the opponent is not easy because the pesilat need to have a really good skill of how to taking down the opponent. Based on the data recorded, the winner’s performances are dominant to kicking skill. However, they need to practice to strengthen their ability. The pesilat also need to improve their skill related fitness because it is important to develop the skills that contribute to scoring points in addition to developing the metabolic system involved in the martial arts competition(M. N. M. Shapie, 2011).


CONCLUSION

According to the all table above, most of the actions that used by the exponent is kicking while sweep is second most used. The kicking always used by the both exponent with total 128 times and sweep with total 31 times. Both of the exponents were performed low intensity activity in the beginning of game then it is become high intensity in next round.
            Activity profile during silat match can be analysed by using the hand notation. This study will provide the feedback of the silat performances. The losing team was kicks more than the winning but the kicking target is not accurate to the target area. Although the winner used kicking technique less than the loser but the accuracy of the kicking is hit the target area. Other than that, the winner also very good in sweep and topple which gives high points to winning the match. The differences of techniques and accuracy of the kicking between both exponent was shown. This study might provide the information to coaches that can be employed the feedback on performances and knowledge appropriate to their training and tournament purposes.
            

REFERENCES

Kartomi, M. (2011). Traditional and modern forms of pencak silat in indonesia: The suku mamak in riau. Musicology Australia, 33(1), 47-68. doi:10.1080/08145857.2011.580716

Latiff, Z. A. (2012). Revisiting pencak silat: The malay martial arts in theatre practice and actor training. Asian Theatre Journal, 29(2), 380-401.

Shapie, M., Nizam, M., Oliver, J., O'donoghue, P., & Tong, R. (2013). Activity profile during action time in national silat competition. Journal of Combat Sports & Martial Arts, 4(1).

Shapie, M. N. M. (2011). Influence of Age and Maturation on Fitness Development, Trainability And Competitive Performance In Youth Silat. Cardiff Metropolitan University. 

Sport Singapore. (2015, Jun 15). Pencak Silat Tanding Women's Class C Final VIE vs INA (Day 9) | 28th SEA Games Singapore 2015. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LbTydViG6pU

Sport Singapore. (2015, Jun 13). Pencak Silat Tanding Men's Class A Final INA vs VIE (Day 9) | 28th SEA Games Singapore 2015. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TogWi7jsKcU

Sport Singapore. (2015, Jun 13). Pencak Silat Tanding Men's Class C LAO vs VIE Semi-Final (Day 8) | 28th SEA Games Singapore 2015. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3o4IIQLkMZA

Sport Singapore. (2015, Jun 11). Pencak Silat Tanding Category Vietnam vs Singapore (Day 6) | 28th SEA Games Singapore 2015. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SokrF52rGxg

Wilson, L. (2009). Jurus, jazz riffs and the constitution of a national martial art in indonesia. Body & Society, 15(3), 93-119. doi:10.1177/1357034X09339103



RECOMMENDATION

As we know, silat is one of the very exciting sport in the aspect of the quick movement game and variety of tactical and technical skill involved. As the silat athletes, actually they need to prepare two things before they participate in any competition which is, good physical and mentality especially in high level competition. Other than that, they also need to improve and practice their skill in silat in term of hit target because the hit target will help them to achieve a winning. Practice always until they can perform perfect during the competition. Besides that, athlete also need to have a good balance in strength because silat involved the upper and lower body limb coordination. Then, cardiovascular endurance also important because this match consist of three rounds. So, they must have a good fitness level to make sure they can perform well from the beginning of match until the end.